The developments in bioinformatics, proteomics, immunogenomics, structural biology and other sciences have spurred the growth of vaccinomics where computer assisted approaches serve to identify suitable peptide targets for eventual development of vaccines.
Vaccine treatment using multiple peptides derived from multiple proteins is considered to be a promising option for cancer immune therapy, but scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy of multiple peptides is limited.
We conducted phase I trials using a mixture of multiple therapeutic peptide vaccines to evaluate their safety, immunogenicity and clinical response in patients with advanced/recurrent NSCLC.
We administered two different combinations of four HLA-A24-restricted peptides.
Two were peptides derived from vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and 2 (VEGFR2), and the third was a peptide derived from up-regulated lung cancer 10 (URLC10, which is also called lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus K [LY6K]).
The fourth peptide used was derived from TTK protein kinase (TTK) or cell division associated 1 (CDCA1).
Vaccines were administered weekly by subcutaneous injection into the axillary region of patients with montanide ISA-51 incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, until the disease was judged to have progressed or patients requested to be withdrawn from the trial.
Immunological responses were primarily evaluated using an IFN-gamma ELi SPOT assay.
Vaccinations were well tolerated with no severe treatment-associated adverse events except for the reactions that occurred at the injection sites.
Peptide-specific T cell responses against at least one peptide were observed in 13 of the 15 patients enrolled.