Scythian-Saka-Siberian monuments have common features, and sometimes common genetic roots.
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"Hunnic" monuments date from the 3rd century BC to the 6th century AD, and other Turkic ones from the 6th century AD to the 13th century AD, leading up to the Mongolian epoch.
The tradition of kurgan burials was adopted by some neighboring peoples who did not have such a tradition.
Various Thracian kings and chieftains were buried in elaborate mound tombs found in modern Bulgaria; Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, was buried in a magnificent kurgan in present Greece; and Midas, a king of ancient Phrygia, was buried in a kurgan near his ancient capital of Gordion.
The Kurgan hypothesis postulates that the Proto-Indo-Europeans were the bearers of the Kurgan culture of the Black Sea and the Caucasus and west of the Urals.
The hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956, combining kurgan archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE)-speaking peoples.
She tentatively named the culture "Kurgan" after their distinctive burial mounds and traced its diffusion into Europe.
This hypothesis has had a significant impact on Indo-European studies.
Those scholars who follow Gimbutas identify a "Kurgan culture" as reflecting an early Indo-European ethnicity, which existed in the steppes and southeastern Europe from the 5th to 3rd millennia BC.
Sarmatian Kurgan 4th century BC, Fillipovka, South Urals, Russia. It is the first kurgan known to be completely destroyed and then rebuilt to its original appearance.
This kurgan was excavated in a dig led by Russian Academy of Sciences Archeology Institute Prof. compare Modern Turkish kurğan, which means "fortress".
They are mounds of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.